Defining Roles and Responsibilities for School-Based Tele-Facilitators: Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) Ratings of Proposed Competencies




e-Helper, Facilitator, Schools, Telehealth, Telepractice, Training


The primary purpose of this study was to craft and validate a set of core competencies necessary for a tele-facilitator to possess in the school setting.  Competencies were created through literature review and qualitative analysis. Following expert review, the competencies were revised and formatted into an online survey which was sent to respondents in four target groups: (a) school administrators who had adopted telepractice as a service delivery model; (b) speech-language pathologists (SLPs) experienced in telepractice within a school setting; (c) current tele-facilitators, and (d) scholars experienced in telepractice. Fifty-seven percent (20 out of 35) of the competencies were rated as “Essential Skills.” The remaining competencies could be more or less important depending on workplace requirements.



Alvares, R. (2013). Working with facilitators to provide school-based speech and language intervention via telepractice. Perspectives on Telepractice, 3(2), 44. doi:10.1044/teles3.2.44

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (n.d.). Telepractice. (Practice Portal). Retrieved from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). 2016 SIG 18 telepractice survey results.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2014). 2014 SIG 18 telepractice services survey results.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016a). 2016 Schools Survey report: SLP workforce and work conditions.

American Telemedicine Association. (2011). Expert consensus recommendations for videoconferencing-based telepresenting.

Baker, S. S., Pearson, M., & Chipman, H. (2009). Development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators who deliver food stamp nutrition education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41(2), 138–143. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2008.05.004

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

California Telehealth Resource Center. (2014). Complete program developer kit.

Coco, L., Davidson, A., & Marrone, N. (2020). The role of patient-site facilitators in teleaudiology: A scoping review. American Journal of Audiology, 29(3S), 661–675.

Edirippulige, S., & Armfield, N. (2017). Education and training to support the use of clinical telehealth: A review of the literature. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 23(2), 273-282.

Grant, J. S., & Davis, L. L. (1997). Selection and use of content experts for instrument development. Research in Nursing & Health, 20(3), 269–274.

Great Plains Telehealth Resource & Assistance Center. (2012). Telepresenter competency check list – (RN).

Grogan-Johnson, S. (2014). Teletherapy: Serving school-age children. In K. T. Houston (Author), Telepractice in speech-language pathology (pp. 117-125). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.

Houwelingen, C. T., Moerman, A. H., Ettema, R. G., Kort, H. S., & Cate, O. T. (2016). Competencies required for nursing telehealth activities: A Delphi-study. Nurse Education Today, 39, 50-62. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2015.12.025

International Board of Credentialing and Continuing Education Standards. (2020, November 16). Telepractice certification for therapists and educators. IBCCES.

Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting iIntraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), 155–163.

Mehta, S., Bastero-Caballero, R. F., Sun, Y., Zhu, R., Murphy, D. K., Hardas, B., & Koch, G. (2018). Performance of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a reliability index under various distributions in scale reliability studies. Statistics in Medicine, 37(18), 2734–2752.

Meyer, B. C., Clarke, C. A., Troke, T. M., & Friedman, L. S. (2012). Essential telemedicine elements (tele-ments) for connecting the academic health center and remote community providers to enhance patient care. Academic Medicine, 87(8), 1032-1040. doi: 10.1097/acm.0b013e31825cdd3a

National Center for Education Statistics. (2020, May). The condition of education - Preprimary, elementary, and secondary education - Elementary and secondary enrollment - Students with disabilities - Indicator May (2020).

National School of Applied Telehealth. (n.d.). CTCP: Certified Telemedicine Clinical Presenter.

Perkins Walker, J. (2015). University of Maine, Speech Therapy Telepractice and Technology Program Manual. Faculty and Staff Monograph Publications.

Ross, J., Stevenson, F., Lau, R., & Murray, E. (2016). Factors that influence the implementation of e-health: A systematic review of systematic reviews (an update). Implementation Science, 11(1), 1-12.

Schlaak, H. M., & Lowman, J. (2018). Professional competencies for e-helpers: A telepractice resource. Theses and Dissertations--Communication Sciences and Disorders.

Thomas Jefferson University. (2019). Telehealth facilitator certificate - Thomas Jefferson University.

Tucker, J. K. (2012). Perspectives of speech-language pathologists on the use of telepractice in schools: The qualitative view. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4(2), 47-60. doi:10.5195/ijt.2012.6102

Waibel, K. H., Garner, S. J., Carter, B., Bojicic, I., & Smith, R. (2017). Outcomes of a military regional multispecialty synchronous telehealth platform and the importance of the dedicated patient presenter. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, 1–8.

Zobell, E., & Hwang, J. (2020). An examination of the current status of paraprofessionals through their lens: Role, training, and supervision. Journal of Special Education Apprenticeship, 9(1), 1–19.




How to Cite

Douglass, H., Lowman, J. J., & Angadi, V. (2021). Defining Roles and Responsibilities for School-Based Tele-Facilitators: Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) Ratings of Proposed Competencies. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 13(1).



School Telepractice