Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ)


  • Bambang Parmanto University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Allen Nelson Lewis, Jr.
  • Kristin M. Graham Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA,
  • Marnie H. Bertolet Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA



Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed.  The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services.  This paper addresses: 1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, 2) the development of the TUQ, 3) intended uses for the TUQ, and 4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services.    



Aoki, N., Dunn, K., Johnson-Throop, K.A., & Turley, J.P. (2003). Outcomes and methods in telemedicine evaluation. Journal of Telemedicine and eHealth, 9, 393– 401.

Bakken, S., Grullon-Figueroa, L., Izquierdo, R, Lee, N.J., Morin, P., Palmas, W.,, Starren, J. (2006). Development, validation, and use of English and Spanish versions of the telemedicine satisfaction and usefulness questionnaire. IDEATel Consortium. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13, 660-667.

Davis, F. D. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38, 475–487.

Demiris, G., Speedie, S., & Finkelstein, S. (2000). A questionnaire for the assessment of patients’ impressions of the risks and benefits of home telecare. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 6, 278–284.

Demiris, G., Speedie, SM, & Finkelstein, S. (2001). Change of patients’ perceptions of TeleHomeCare. Journal of Telemedicine and eHealth, 7, 241–248.

Demiris, G., Speedie, S.M., & Hicks, L.L. (2004). Assessment of patients’ acceptance of and satisfaction with teledermatology. Journal of Medical Systems, 28, 575–579.

Ekeland, A.G., Bowes, A., & Flottorp, S. (2010). Effectiveness of telemedicine: A systematic review of reviews. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 79, 736-771.

Heinzelmann, P.J., Williams, C.M., Lugn, N.E., & Kvedar, J.C. (2005), Clinical outcomes associated with telemedicine/telehealth. Journal of Telemedicine and eHealth, 11, 329 - 347.

ISO (1992). Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 1: General introduction, ISO 9241-1:1992. Retrieved from

Lewis, J. R. (1995). IBM computer usability satisfaction questionnaires: Psychometric evaluation and instructions for use. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7(1), 57–78. doi:10.1080/10447319509526110

Mair, F., & Whitten P. (2000). Systematic review of studies of patient satisfaction with telemedicine. British Medical Journal, 320, 1517–1520.

Nielsen, J. & Mack, R. (1994). Usability inspection methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nielsen, J. (2012). Usability 101: Introduction to usability. Retrieved from

Parmanto, B., Saptono, A., Pramana, G., Pulantara, W., Schein, R., Schmeler, M.,…Brienza, D. (2010). VISYTER: Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16, 1-6. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2010.0033.

Peel, N.M., Russell, T.G., & Gray, L.C. (2011). Feasibility of using an in-home video conferencing system in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43, 364-366. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0675.

Portney, L. G., & Watkins, M. P. (2009). Foundations of clinical research: Application to practice (Vol. 3). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Schlachta-Fairchild L, Elfrink V, Deickman A. (2008). Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses. In R.G. Hughes (Ed.), Patient safety, telenursing, and telehealth (Ch. 48). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from:

Schutte, J., McCue, M., Parmanto, B., McGonigle, J., Handen, B., Lewis, A.,…Saptono, A. (2015). Usability and reliability of a remotely administered adult autism assessment, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4. Journal of Telemedicine and eHealth, 21, 1-9. PMID: 25569603.

Yip, M.P., Chang, A.M., Chan, J., & MacKenzie, A.E. (2003). Development of the Telemedicine Satisfaction Questionnaire to evaluate patient satisfaction with telemedicine: A preliminary study. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 9, 46-50.

Yu, D., Parmanto, B., Dicianno, B.E., & Pramana, G. (2015). Accessibility of mHealth self-care apps for individuals with spina bifida. Perspectives in Health Information Management [eCollection 2015]. Available at

Yu, D., Parmanto, B., Dicianno, B.E., Watzlaf, V.J., & Seelman, K.D. (2015) Accessibility needs and challenges of a mHealth system for patients with dexterity impairments. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 1-9. doi: 10.3109/17483107.2015.1063171



How to Cite

Parmanto, B., Lewis, Jr., A. N., Graham, K. M., & Bertolet, M. H. (2016). Development of the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ). International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 8(1), 3–10.




Most read articles by the same author(s)