A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

Sue Grogan-Johnson, Rodney M. Gabel, Jacquelyn Taylor, Lynne E. Rowan, Robin Alvares, Jason Schenker


This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth), or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002). Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. 

Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008). National Outcomes Measurement Scales K-12, 2008 National Data Report. Retrieved June 24, 2009 from www.asha.org.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Speech-language pathologists providing clinical services via telepractice: position statement [position statement]. Available from http://www.asha.org/docs/ html/PS2005-00116.html

Boswell, S. (2007, March 6). Ohio grant addresses personnel shortage: Innovative strategies meet short-and long-term goals. The ASHA Leader, 2 (3)1, 14-15.

Christmann, E. & Badgett, J. (2003). A meta-analytic comparison of the effects of computer-assisted instruction on elementary students’ academic achievement. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 91-104.

Forducey, P. (2006, August 15). Speech telepractice program expands options for rural Oklahoma schools. The ASHA Leader, 11(10), 12-13.

Gierut, J. (1998). Treatment efficacy: Functional phonological disorders in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 41, s85-s100.

Goldman, R. & Fristoe, M. (2002). The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2. Minneapolis, MN: American Guidance Service Inc.

Grogan-Johnson, S., Alvares, R., Rowan, L.E. & Creaghead, N. (2010). A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of speech-language intervention provided by telehealth and traditional side-by-side intervention. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 16(3), 134-139.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2004). Section 800 [c]8. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from http://idea.ed.gov.

Justice, L.M., & Fey, M.E. (2004, September 21). Evidence-based practice in schools: Integrating craft and Theory with science and data. The ASHA Leader. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2004/040921/f040921a.htm.

Lewis, C., Packman, A., Onslow, M., Simpson, J., & Jones, M. (2008). A phase II trial of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program of early Stuttering Intervention. American Journal of Speech- Language Pathology, 17, 139-149.

Madsen, L., & Shellsey, R. (2005, November). Using teleintervention to address the slp shortage in North Dakota. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Speech Language Hearing Association Convention, San Diego, CA.

Masterson, J. (1995). Future directions in computer use. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, 260-262.

McGuire, R. (1995). Computer based instrumentation: Issues in clinical applications. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, 223-231.

Polovoy, C. (2008, July 15). Telepractice in schools helps address personnel shortages. The ASHA Leader, 13(9), 22-24.

Ruscello, D., Yanero, D., & Ghalichebaf, M. (1995). Cooperative service delivery between a university clinic and a school system. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, 273- 277.

Shriberg, L., Kwiatkowski, J., & Snyder, T. (1989). Tabletop versus microcomputer-assisted speech management: Stabilization phase. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 233-248.

Shriberg, L., Kwiatkowski, J., & Snyder, T. (1990). Tabletop versus microcomputer- assisted speech management: Response evocation phase. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 635-655.

Secord, W. (1989). The traditional approach to treatment. In N.A.Creaghead, P.W.Newman & W.A. Secord (Eds.), Assessment and Remediation of Articulation and Phonological Disorders, second edition, (pp.129-157). Columbus, OH:Merrill Publishing Company.

Semel, E., Wiig, E., & Secord, D. (2003). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4th Edition. San Antonio, Texas: Pearson.

Sutton, G., & Brick, M. (2005). TinyEye Online Speech Therapy [computer software]. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada: TinyEYE Therapy Services.

VanDusen, L., & Worthern, B. (1995). Can integrated instructional technology transform the classroom? Educational Leadership, 53, 28-33.

Waite, M., Cahill, L., Theodoros, D., Busuttin, S., & Russell, T. (2006). A pilot study of online assessment of childhood speech disorders. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12 (Suppl.3), 92-24


Waite, M., Theodoros, D., Russell, T., & Cahill, L (2010). Internet-based telehealth assessment of language using the CELF-4. Language-Speech-Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 445-458.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/ijt.2011.6064



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.