Telerehabilitation for Knee Osteoarthritis in Brazil: A Feasibility Study

Keywords: Brazil, Knee, Osteoarthritis, Telerehabilitation

Abstract

Background: The effectiveness of telerehabilitation for a patient with knee osteoarthritis may depend upon the person’s adherence to intervention. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether people with knee osteoarthritis would adhere to exercise-therapy facilitated via multiple media in Brazil, a newly industrialized country. Method: This is a feasibility study, pre-post intervention. Middle aged (40-50 years) and elderly (?70 years) people with knee osteoarthritis received in-person exercise-therapy instructions on the first day, along with a booklet and DVD (videos) to take home. Participants also received six motivational phone calls throughout the 12-week treatment. Satisfaction and adherence were assessed one week after intervention with the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS), sections B and C. Preference on the method used to adhere to exercises was recorded. Conclusion: Telerehabilitation was well accepted by middle-aged and elderly Brazilians with knee osteoarthritis. The preferred media to enhance adherence, was a booklet with descriptions of the exercises, especially for the elderly cohort.

  

Author Biographies

Jéssica Bianca Aily, Federal University of São Carlos

Department of Physical Therapy, Center of Biological and Health Sciences

Christian John Barton, La Trobe University
School of Allied Health, LASEM Research Centre
Stela Marcia Mattiello, Federal University of São Carlos
Department of Physical Therapy, Center of Biological and Health Sciences
Danilo de Oliveira Silva, La Trobe University
School of Allied Health, LASEM Research Centre
Marcos de Noronha, La Trobe University
Rural Health School, Rural Department of Allied Health

References

Aily, J. B., de Noronha, M., de Almeida, A. C., Pedroso, M. G., Maciel, J. G., Mattiello-Sverzut, A. C., & Mattiello, S. M. (2019). Evaluation of vastus lateralis architecture and strength of knee extensors in middle-aged and older individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Clinical Rheumatology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04539-9

Allen, K. D., Arbeeva, L., Callahan, L. F., Golightly, Y. M., Goode, A. P., Heiderscheit, B. C., … Schwartz, T. A. (2018). Physical therapy vs internet-based exercise training for patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 26(3), 383–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2017.12.008

Altman, D., Machin, D., Bryant, T., & Gardner, M. (2013). Statistics with confidence: confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. John Wiley & Sons.

Altman, R., Asch, E., Bloch, D., Bole, G., Borenstein, D., Brandt, K., … Wolfe, F. (1986). Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 29(8), 1039–1049. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780290816

Arden, N. K., & Leyland, K. M. (2013). Osteoarthritis year 2013 in review: Clinical. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 21(10), 1409–1413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2013.06.021

Azma, K., RezaSoltani, Z., Rezaeimoghaddam, F., Dadarkhah, A., & Mohsenolhosseini, S. (2018). Efficacy of tele-rehabilitation compared with office-based physical therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 24(8), 560–565. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X17723368

Baller, S., Dutta, S., & Lanvin, B. (2016). Global information technology report 2016. Ouranos Geneva.

Barton, C. J., Lack, S., Hemmings, S., Tufail, S., & Morrissey, D. (2015). The “Best Practice Guide to Conservative Management of Patellofemoral Pain”: Incorporating level 1 evidence with expert clinical reasoning. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(14), 923–934. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093637

Bellamy, N., Buchanan, W. W., Goldsmith, C. H., Campbell, J., & Stitt, L. W. (1988). Validation study of WOMAC: A health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. The Journal of Rheumatology, 15, 1833–1840.

Bellamy, N., Carette, S., Ford, P. M., Kean, W. F., Lussier, A., Wells, G. A., & Campbell, J. (1992). Osteoarthritis antirheumatic drug trials. II. Tables for calculating sample size for clinical trials. The Journal of Rheumatology, 19(3), 444–450.

Bijur, P., Silver, W., & Gallagher, E. (2001). Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain. Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(12), 1153–1157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2001.tb01132.x

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

Cavallo, D. N., Brown, J. D., Tate, D. F., DeVellis, R. F., Zimmer, C., & Ammerman, A. S. (2014). The role of companionship, esteem, and informational support in explaining physical activity among young women in an online social network intervention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(5), 955. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-013-9534-5

Choi, J., Hergenroeder, A. L., Burke, L., Dabbs, A. D., Morrell, M., Saptono, A., & Parmanto, B. (2016). Delivering an in-home exercise program via telerehabilitation: A pilot study of lung transplant go (LTGO). International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 8(2), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2016.6201

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1234/12345678

Cross, M., Smith, E., Hoy, D., Nolte, S., Ackerman, I., Fransen, M., … March, L. (2014). The global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 73(7), 1323–1330. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204763

Dantas, L. O., Barreto, R. P., & Ferreira, C. H. (2020). Digital physical therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 24, 381–383.

de Almeida, A. C., Pedroso, M. G., Aily, J. B., Gonçalves, G. H., Pastre, C. M., & Mattiello, S. M. (2018). Influence of a periodized circuit training protocol on intermuscular adipose tissue of patients with knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 19(1), 421. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-2325-y

Dobson, F., Bennell, K. L., French, S. D., Nicolson, P. J. A., Klaasman, R. N., Holden, M. A., … Hinman, R. S. (2016). Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise Participation in People with Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis: Synthesis of the Literature Using Behavior Change Theory. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(5), 372–389. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000448

Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 215824401452263. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633

Fernandes, L., Hagen, K. B., Bijlsma, J. W. J., Andreassen, O., Christensen, P., Conaghan, P. G., … Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M. (2013). EULAR recommendations for the non-pharmacological core management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 72(7), 1125–1135.

https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202745

Goode, A. D., Reeves, M. M., & Eakin, E. G. (2012). Telephone-delivered interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change: An updated systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(1), 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.08.025

Herbert, R., Jamtvedt, G., Hagen, K. B., Mead, J., & Chalmers, I. (2011). Practical evidence-based physiotherapy-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hinman, R. S., Lawford, B. J., Campbell, P. K., Briggs, A. M., Gale, J., Bills, C., … Bennell, K. L. (2017). Telephone-delivered exercise advice and behavior change support by physical therapists for people with knee osteoarthritis: Protocol for the telecare randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 97, 1–59.

Hong, S.-Y., Hughes, S., & Prohaska, T. (2008). Factors affecting exercise attendance and completion in sedentary older adults: a meta-analytic approach. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 5(3), 385–397. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579917

Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology. Cengage Learning.

Hunter, D. J., & Bierma-zeinstra, S. (2019). Osteoarthritis. Lancet, 393, 1745–1759. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30417-9

Kellgren, J. H., & Lawrence, J. S. (1957). Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 16(4), 494–502. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.16.4.494

Kloek, C. J. J., Bossen, D., Spreeuwenberg, P. M., Dekker, J., de Bakker, D. H., & Veenhof, C. (2018). Effectiveness of a blended physical therapist intervention in people with hip osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis, or both: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 98(7), 560–570. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzy045

Lee, A. C. W., & Harada, N. D. (2013). Telerehabilitation as a means of health-care delivery. In S. Kumar & E. R. Cohn (Eds.), Telerehabilitation (pp. 79–89). London: Springer London. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4198-3_6

Lieber, R. L., & Fridén, J. (2000). Functional and clinical significance of skeletal muscle architecture. Muscle Nerve, 23(November), 1647–1666.

Marquez, B., Anderson, A., Wing, R. R., West, D. S., Newton, R. L., Meacham, M., … Group, T. L. A. R. (2016). The relationship of social support with treatment adherence and weight loss in Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 24(3), 568. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21382

McAlindon, T. E., Bannuru, R. R., Sullivan, M. C., Arden, N. K., Berenbaum, F., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., … Underwood, M. (2014). OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 22(3), 363–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003

Messier, S. P., Mihalko, S. L., Beavers, D. P., Nicklas, B. J., Devita, P., Carr, J. J., … Loeser, R. F. (2013). Strength Training for Arthritis Trial (START): Design and rationale. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14(1), 208. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-208

Neal, B. S., Barton, C. J., Birn-Jeffrey, A., Daley, M., & Morrissey, D. (2018). The effects and mechanisms of increasing running step rate: A feasibility study in a mixed-sex group of runners with patellofemoral pain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 32, 244–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.05.018

Nelson, M. J., Crossley, K. M., Bourke, M. G., & Russell, T. G. (2017). Telerehabilitation feasibility in total joint replacement. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 9(2), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2017.6235

Newman-Beinart, N. A., Norton, S., Dowling, D., Gavriloff, D., Vari, C., Weinman, J. A., & Godfrey, E. L. (2017). The development and initial psychometric evaluation of a measure assessing adherence to prescribed exercise: the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS). Physiotherapy (United Kingdom), 103(2), 180–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2016.11.001

Older adults and technology use | Pew Research Center. (2014, April 15). Retrieved from https://www.pewinternet.org/2014/04/03/older-adults-and-technology-use/

Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2006). Analysing qualitative data. Qualitative Research in Health Care, 63–81.

Renda, M., & Lape, J. E. (2018). Feasibility and effectiveness of telehealth occupational therapy home modification interventions. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 10(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2018.6244

Richardson, J. T. E. (2011). The analysis of 2× 2 contingency tables—Yet again. Statistics in Medicine, 30(8), 890.

Salisbury, C., Montgomery, A. A., Hollinghurst, S., Hopper, C., Bishop, A., Franchini, A., … Foster, N. E. (2014). Effectiveness of PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice services for patients with musculoskeletal problems. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(18), 1391. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-f43rep

Scopaz, K. A., Piva, S. R., Gil, A. B., Woollard, J. D., Oddis, C. V, & Fitzgerald, G. K. (2009). Effect of baseline quadriceps activation on changes in quadriceps strength after exercise therapy in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 61(7), 951–957. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24650

Speerin, R., Slater, H., Li, L., Moore, K., Chan, M., Dreinhöfer, K., … Briggs, A. M. (2014). Moving from evidence to practice: Models of care for the prevention and management of musculoskeletal conditions. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology, 28(3), 479–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2014.07.001

Turolla, A., Rossettini, G., Viceconti, A., Palese, A., & Tommaso, G. (2020). Musculoskeletal physical therapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Is telerehabilitation the answer? Physical Therapy, 1–56.

Aily, J. B., de Noronha, M., de Almeida, A. C., Pedroso, M. G., Maciel, J. G., Mattiello-Sverzut, A. C., & Mattiello, S. M. (2019). Evaluation of vastus lateralis architecture and strength of knee extensors in middle-aged and older individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Clinical Rheumatology, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04539-9

Allen, K. D., Arbeeva, L., Callahan, L. F., Golightly, Y. M., Goode, A. P., Heiderscheit, B. C., … Schwartz, T. A. (2018). Physical therapy vs internet-based exercise training for patients with knee osteoarthritis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 26(3), 383–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2017.12.008

Altman, D., Machin, D., Bryant, T., & Gardner, M. (2013). Statistics with confidence: confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. John Wiley & Sons.

Altman, R., Asch, E., Bloch, D., Bole, G., Borenstein, D., Brandt, K., … Wolfe, F. (1986). Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: Classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 29(8), 1039–1049. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780290816

Arden, N. K., & Leyland, K. M. (2013). Osteoarthritis year 2013 in review: Clinical. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 21(10), 1409–1413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2013.06.021

Azma, K., RezaSoltani, Z., Rezaeimoghaddam, F., Dadarkhah, A., & Mohsenolhosseini, S. (2018). Efficacy of tele-rehabilitation compared with office-based physical therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 24(8), 560–565. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X17723368

Baller, S., Dutta, S., & Lanvin, B. (2016). Global information technology report 2016. Ouranos Geneva.

Barton, C. J., Lack, S., Hemmings, S., Tufail, S., & Morrissey, D. (2015). The “Best Practice Guide to Conservative Management of Patellofemoral Pain”: Incorporating level 1 evidence with expert clinical reasoning. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(14), 923–934. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093637

Bellamy, N., Buchanan, W. W., Goldsmith, C. H., Campbell, J., & Stitt, L. W. (1988). Validation study of WOMAC: A health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. The Journal of Rheumatology, 15, 1833–1840.

Bellamy, N., Carette, S., Ford, P. M., Kean, W. F., Lussier, A., Wells, G. A., & Campbell, J. (1992). Osteoarthritis antirheumatic drug trials. II. Tables for calculating sample size for clinical trials. The Journal of Rheumatology, 19(3), 444–450.

Bijur, P., Silver, W., & Gallagher, E. (2001). Reliability of the visual analog scale for measurement of acute pain. Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(12), 1153–1157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2001.tb01132.x

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

Cavallo, D. N., Brown, J. D., Tate, D. F., DeVellis, R. F., Zimmer, C., & Ammerman, A. S. (2014). The role of companionship, esteem, and informational support in explaining physical activity among young women in an online social network intervention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(5), 955. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-013-9534-5

Choi, J., Hergenroeder, A. L., Burke, L., Dabbs, A. D., Morrell, M., Saptono, A., & Parmanto, B. (2016). Delivering an in-home exercise program via telerehabilitation: A pilot study of lung transplant go (LTGO). International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 8(2), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2016.6201

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1234/12345678

Cross, M., Smith, E., Hoy, D., Nolte, S., Ackerman, I., Fransen, M., … March, L. (2014). The global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 73(7), 1323–1330. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204763

Dantas, L. O., Barreto, R. P., & Ferreira, C. H. (2020). Digital physical therapy in the COVID-19 pandemic. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 24, 381–383.

de Almeida, A. C., Pedroso, M. G., Aily, J. B., Gonçalves, G. H., Pastre, C. M., & Mattiello, S. M. (2018). Influence of a periodized circuit training protocol on intermuscular adipose tissue of patients with knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 19(1), 421. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-2325-y

Dobson, F., Bennell, K. L., French, S. D., Nicolson, P. J. A., Klaasman, R. N., Holden, M. A., … Hinman, R. S. (2016). Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise Participation in People with Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis: Synthesis of the Literature Using Behavior Change Theory. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(5), 372–389. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000448

Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 215824401452263. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633

Fernandes, L., Hagen, K. B., Bijlsma, J. W. J., Andreassen, O., Christensen, P., Conaghan, P. G., … Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M. (2013). EULAR recommendations for the non-pharmacological core management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 72(7), 1125–1135. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202745

Goode, A. D., Reeves, M. M., & Eakin, E. G. (2012). Telephone-delivered interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change: An updated systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(1), 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.08.025

Herbert, R., Jamtvedt, G., Hagen, K. B., Mead, J., & Chalmers, I. (2011). Practical evidence-based physiotherapy-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hinman, R. S., Lawford, B. J., Campbell, P. K., Briggs, A. M., Gale, J., Bills, C., … Bennell, K. L. (2017). Telephone-delivered exercise advice and behavior change support by physical therapists for people with knee osteoarthritis: Protocol for the telecare randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 97, 1–59.

Hong, S.-Y., Hughes, S., & Prohaska, T. (2008). Factors affecting exercise attendance and completion in sedentary older adults: a meta-analytic approach. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 5(3), 385–397. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18579917

Howell, D. C. (2009). Statistical methods for psychology. Cengage Learning.

Hunter, D. J., & Bierma-zeinstra, S. (2019). Osteoarthritis. Lancet, 393, 1745–1759. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30417-9

Kellgren, J. H., & Lawrence, J. S. (1957). Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 16(4), 494–502. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.16.4.494

Kloek, C. J. J., Bossen, D., Spreeuwenberg, P. M., Dekker, J., de Bakker, D. H., & Veenhof, C. (2018). Effectiveness of a blended physical therapist intervention in people with hip osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis, or both: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 98(7), 560–570. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzy045

Lee, A. C. W., & Harada, N. D. (2013). Telerehabilitation as a means of health-care delivery. In S. Kumar & E. R. Cohn (Eds.), Telerehabilitation (pp. 79–89). London: Springer London. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4198-3_6

Lieber, R. L., & Fridén, J. (2000). Functional and clinical significance of skeletal muscle architecture. Muscle Nerve, 23(November), 1647–1666.

Marquez, B., Anderson, A., Wing, R. R., West, D. S., Newton, R. L., Meacham, M., … Group, T. L. A. R. (2016). The relationship of social support with treatment adherence and weight loss in Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 24(3), 568. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21382

McAlindon, T. E., Bannuru, R. R., Sullivan, M. C., Arden, N. K., Berenbaum, F., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., … Underwood, M. (2014). OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 22(3), 363–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003

Messier, S. P., Mihalko, S. L., Beavers, D. P., Nicklas, B. J., Devita, P., Carr, J. J., … Loeser, R. F. (2013). Strength Training for Arthritis Trial (START): Design and rationale. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14(1), 208. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-208

Neal, B. S., Barton, C. J., Birn-Jeffrey, A., Daley, M., & Morrissey, D. (2018). The effects and mechanisms of increasing running step rate: A feasibility study in a mixed-sex group of runners with patellofemoral pain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 32, 244–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.05.018

Nelson, M. J., Crossley, K. M., Bourke, M. G., & Russell, T. G. (2017). Telerehabilitation feasibility in total joint replacement. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 9(2), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2017.6235

Newman-Beinart, N. A., Norton, S., Dowling, D., Gavriloff, D., Vari, C., Weinman, J. A., & Godfrey, E. L. (2017). The development and initial psychometric evaluation of a measure assessing adherence to prescribed exercise: the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS). Physiotherapy (United Kingdom), 103(2), 180–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2016.11.001

Older adults and technology use | Pew Research Center. (2014, April 15). Retrieved from https://www.pewinternet.org/2014/04/03/older-adults-and-technology-use/

Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2006). Analysing qualitative data. Qualitative Research in Health Care, 63–81.

Renda, M., & Lape, J. E. (2018). Feasibility and effectiveness of telehealth occupational therapy home modification interventions. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 10(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2018.6244

Richardson, J. T. E. (2011). The analysis of 2× 2 contingency tables—Yet again. Statistics in Medicine, 30(8), 890.

Salisbury, C., Montgomery, A. A., Hollinghurst, S., Hopper, C., Bishop, A., Franchini, A., … Foster, N. E. (2014). Effectiveness of PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice services for patients with musculoskeletal problems. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(18), 1391. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-f43rep

Scopaz, K. A., Piva, S. R., Gil, A. B., Woollard, J. D., Oddis, C. V, & Fitzgerald, G. K. (2009). Effect of baseline quadriceps activation on changes in quadriceps strength after exercise therapy in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 61(7), 951–957. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24650

Speerin, R., Slater, H., Li, L., Moore, K., Chan, M., Dreinhöfer, K., … Briggs, A. M. (2014). Moving from evidence to practice: Models of care for the prevention and management of musculoskeletal conditions. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology, 28(3), 479–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2014.07.001

Turolla, A., Rossettini, G., Viceconti, A., Palese, A., & Tommaso, G. (2020). Musculoskeletal physical therapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Is telerehabilitation the answer? Physical Therapy, 1–56.

Published
2020-12-08
How to Cite
Aily, J. B., Barton, C. J., Mattiello, S. M., de Oliveira Silva, D., & de Noronha, M. (2020). Telerehabilitation for Knee Osteoarthritis in Brazil: A Feasibility Study. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 12(2), 137–148. https://doi.org/10.5195/ijt.2020.6323
Section
Country Reports